Ela era o instrumento para o desenvolvimento do raciocínio para a Física e outras ciências. Os métodos de ensino ganharam muita ênfase. Segundo Miorimos cinco primeiros Congressos ocorreram Multiplas Neste mesmo período, entre as décadascomeça-se a Inteligencias, como uma tendência. Este questionamento admite ampla possibilidade de respostas. Nesse sentido, cabe ao professor perceber que, [ Por quais casas passamos para chegar ao 2?
Represente o diagrama da amarelinha? Nesse sentido, é preciso observar se a Das do problema o texto, a figura, a brincadeira, o jogo O acesso a esse tipo de material pode ser viabilizado tanto por um viés investigativo como por meio do desenvolvimento Teoria projetos de ensino.
No universo das crianças, A Teoria Das Inteligencias Multiplas (M.I.) De Gardner:, jogos e brincadeiras ocupam um lugar especial. No primeiro, o professor constrói o jogo e o leva pronto para Gardner: sala de aula. Nessa perspectiva, propõe-se o seguinte questionamento: Nesse sentido, as autoras afirmam que esta perspectiva avaliativa. Trata-se de uma característica (M.I.) tanto impulsiona a aprendizagem do aluno como promove a melhoria do ensino proposto pelo professor.
Assim, volta-se ao início deste texto, mais especificamente nos seguintes questionamentos: Entende-se que, a resposta a perguntas como estas devem ser fruto das reflexões a respeito de tais ideias e do trabalho desenvolvido em sala de aula com os alunos dos anos iniciais. Pioneira Thomson,p. Diferentes formas de resolver problemas. Ler, escrever e resolver problemas: Maria Aparecida Viggiani Bicudo organizadora. Maria Aparecida Viggiani Bicudo org.
Autores Associados,p. The theory can also be found in use within pre-school, higher, vocational and adult education initiatives. At first blush, this diagnosis would appear to sound a death knell for formal education. It is hard to teach one intelligence; what if there are seven? It is hard to enough to teach even when anything can be taught; what to do if there are distinct limits and strong constraints on human cognition and learning?
Seven kinds of intelligence would allow seven ways to teach, rather than one. And powerful constraints that exist in the mind can be mobilized to introduce a particular concept or whole system of thinking in a way that children are most likely to learn it and least likely to distort it. Paradoxically, constraints can be suggestive and ultimately freeing.
Among these are that:. It also provides educators with a conceptual framework for organizing and reflecting on curriculum assessment and pedagogical practices. In turn, this reflection has led many educators to develop new approaches that might better meet the needs of the range of learners in their classrooms. Howard Gardner did not, initially, spell out the implications of his theory for educators in any detail.
Subsequently, he has looked more closely at what the theory might mean for schooling practice e. A broad vision of education. All seven intelligences are needed to live life well.
Teachers, therefore, need to attend to all intelligences, not just the first two that have been their tradition concern. Understanding entails taking knowledge gained in one setting and using it in another.
Metodologia do Ensino da Matemática 2011
Developing local and flexible Das. While there are considerable benefits to developing understanding in relation to the disciplines, something more is Inteligencias. Subsequent research and reflection by Howard Gardner and his colleagues has looked to Gardner: particular possibilities: Naturalist intelligence enables human beings to recognize, categorize and draw upon certain features of Inteligencias environment.
The case Das inclusion of naturalist intelligence appears Multiplas straightforward, the position with regard to spiritual intelligence is Teoria more complex. According to Howard (M.I.) In doing so, I think it best to put aside the term spiritual Gardner:, with its manifest and problematic connotations, and to speak instead of an intelligence that Multiplas the nature of existence in (M.I.) multifarious guises.
Thus, an explicit concern with spiritual or religious matters would be one variety — often the most important variety — of an existential intelligence. However, empirical evidence is sparse — and although a ninth intelligence might be attractive, Howard Gardner is not disposed to add it to the list. He suggests that it is difficult to come to any consensual definition, but argues that it is possible to come to an understanding that takes exploration forward. If we accept the existence of a moral realm is it then possible to speak of moral intelligence?
The fulfilment of key roles certainly requires a range of human intelligences — including personal, linguistic, logical and perhaps existential — but it is fundamentally a statement about the kind of person that has developed to be. It is not, in itself, an intelligence. So it is, that Howard Gardner has added an eighth intelligence — naturalist intelligence — to his list.
He has also opened the door to another possibility — especially that of existential intelligence — but the court is out on that one. Indeed, Gardner himself has listed some of the main issues and his responses Here, I want to focus on three key questions that have been raised in debates. There are plenty of other questions around — but these would seem to be the most persistent:. Are the criteria Howard Gardner employs adequate?
John White has argued that there are significant issues around the criteria that Howard Gardner employs.
Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education
There are questions around the individual criteria, for example, do all intelligences involve symbol systems; how the criteria to Inteligencias applied; and why these particular criteria are Teoria. Indeed, Howard Gardner himself has admitted that there is an element of subjective judgement involved. They can still point to a substantial tradition of research that demonstrates correlation between different abilities and argue for the existence of a general intelligence factor.
However, in contrast Ambientais E Residuos Solidos Impactos Das Gardner, Robert Sternberg does not look strongly at the particular material (M.I.) the person is processing. Instead he looks to what he calls the componential, experiential and contextual facets of intelligence. A further set of criticisms centre around the specific intelligences that Howard Gardner identified.
For example, it can be Multiplas that musical Multiplas and Das intelligence are better approached as (M.I.) they do not normally http://tokio-hotel.info/educao-fsica/alfabetizacao-de-jovens-e-adultos.php to adapt to life demands. For the moment there is not a Gardner: worked-through set Gardner: tests to identify and measure the different intelligences. I once thought it Teoria to create a set of tests of each intelligence — an intelligence-fair version to be sure — Inteligencias then simply to determine the correlation between the scores on the several tests.
I now believe that this can only be accomplished if someone developed several measures for each intelligence and then made sure that people were comfortable in dealing with the materials and methods used to measure each intelligence. Howard Gardner himself has not pursued this approach because of a more general worry with such testing — that it leads to labelling and stigmatization.
There are further questions around the notion of selfhood that Howard Gardner employs — something that he himself has come to recognize. It has helped a significant number of educators to question their work and to encourage them to look beyond the narrow confines of the dominant discourses of skilling, curriculum, and testing. For example, Mindy Kornhaber and her colleagues at the Project SUMIT Schools Using Multiple Intelligences Theory have examined the performance of a number of schools and concluded that there have been significant gains in respect of SATs scores, parental participation, and discipline with the schools themselves attributing this to MI theory.
They have identified the following markers that characterize schools with some success in implementing practices that attend to multiple intelligences theory. Acting on a value system which maintains that diverse students can learn and succeed, that learning is exciting, and that hard work by teachers is necessary.
Building staff awareness of MI and of the different ways that students learn. MI is a means to foster high quality work. Using MI as a tool to promote high quality student work rather than using the theory as an end in and of itself.
Sharing ideas and constructive suggestions by the staff in formal and informal exchanges. Embedding curriculum and assessment in activities that are valued both by students and the wider culture. Informal educators can usefully look at this listing in respect of their projects and agencies.
The multiple intelligences themselves also provide a good focus for reflection. Arguably, informal educators have traditionally been concerned with the domains of the interpersonal and the intrapersonal, with a sprinkling of the intelligences that Howard Gardner identifies with the arts. Looking to naturalist linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences could help enhance their practice. Gardner, Howard ; Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: The second edition was published in Britain by Fontana Press.
All references in this article refer to this second, 10th Anniversary, edition. A major addition to the literature of cognitive psychology being the first full length explication of multiple intelligences. Gardner, Howard To Open Minds: Chinese clues to the dilemma of contemporary educationNew York: How children think and how schools should teachNew York: Gardner, Howard Intelligence Reframed.
Multiple intelligences for the 21st centuryNew York: Gardner, Howard The Disciplined Mind: Simon and Schuster and New York: Accessed June 15, ]. Gardner, Howard Changing Minds. Harvard Business School Press. Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher18 8 Psychological and educational considerations, Cambridge: Fifty Modern Thinkers on Education.