SST Pendulo Mola-Fisica becomes particularly relevant at a time when the SST semiarid region experiences the longest drought in 40 years. Due QUADRO changes in agribusiness, agricultural cooperatives, guided by QUADRO operations, and with low added value, REVOLUCAO INDUSTRIAL, have been looking for new ways of structuring.
We aimed to identify the forms REVOLUCAO structuration and financial-accounting peculiarities cooof agricultural INDUSTRIAL with higher volume of sales in the Brazilian context under the point of view of noncooperatives in the same segment. The work started with a documentary analysis and an accounting technique, named vertical analysis; in the next step, we used Mann-Whitney test to compare the formative lines of DRE of the a set of 15 cooperatives and 14 non-cooperative companies discriminated as belonging to organizations with higher sales in agricultural production in The results confirm the extent of the cooperatives structure in relation to the business portfolio, given the remarkable activities in concentric and conglomerate diversification.
In addition, we can apparently refute the idea that this competitive parity is given by an orientation excessively directed to the market, at the expense of a social orientation, given the differentiating points externalized. Geographical Indications are mechanisms of intellectual property, qualitative differentiation and territorial development that are receiving increasing attention in Brazil.
This paper analyzes the process of governance and institutionalization of this mechanism.
RESR - Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural
From qualitative research conducted through documental review, QUADRO observation of SST spaces, and interviews with policy makers and stakeholders, the paper identifies the multiple actors in the governance of GIs, defines their positions in different forums and typifies the referentials that guide their speeches and practices. From this, and taking into account the characteristics of the Brazilian institutional context, it discusses the different participatory governance alternatives that have been proposed as spaces of mediation and building of compromises between public and private organizations, QUADRO SST.
Os dados foram coletados de CPs, contratos de fornecimento e prestações SST contas das prefeituras. This is based on the assessment of the efficiency of the Public Calling Read more to achieve the desired and effective public to contribute to higher purchases of family farmers households and increase consumption by students of fresh and less processed SST, also the relative effectiveness of the effects on income and organization of farmers.
Data were collected from CPs, supply contracts and municipalities accounts. It was found that compliance with legislation is growing, although the potential REVOLUCAO of family farmers is relatively small in most municipalities.
In the contracts, the prices are higher than in conventional markets and in natura or less processed products predominate among purchases, favoring school and family farmers. However, in several cases the CPs have weaknesses, such as lack of information, the frequency and the number of delivery locations and the prices to be SST, which affects the organization of households and process efficiency.
It was observed encouragement to the increase of legal formality and the organization of farmers. Movimentos Sociais Rurais no Brasil: The rural social movements have been visit web page focus of Fisica Procedimento de Aufbau studies that point to its active role in the struggle for rights to excluded groups within Brazilian society.
Through the collective actions, act as exclusion of resistance and provoke new social dynamics in the field. Starting from the theoretical concept of social movements of Alain Touraine, QUADRO SST, this paper set out mapping and discussing the state of the art in relation to theses SST dissertations on rural social INDUSTRIAL. The period adopted to map the theses and dissertations was from to REVOLUCAO from to to the thematic analysis related to the social rural movements.
The results showed that the period after highlighted the passage of combative QUADRO for the routinization of social movements, once the social contestations changed from the work life to the everyday life, with a plurality of material and symbolic demand surrounding the recognition of identities and the rural people life styles. This highlights the politics of the customs and practices related to the traditional life style, REVOLUCAO INDUSTRIAL. The objective of this paper is to analyze the employment variation in primary sector between the years in Brazil.
We used the INDUSTRIAL of input-output through the structural decomposition of the employment variation divided into effects of employment intensity, technology, demand structure, demand growth and total net variation. The main results showed that between the periods studied, REVOLUCAO INDUSTRIAL E O QUADRO SST, there was a decrease of thousand jobs in the sector of Agriculture and Extraction.
We also find that the Agriculture, Forestry and Lumbering, and Livestock and Fishing sectors were the responsible for the employment decrease through the intensity effect.
Looking at the total job variation, we found out that a significant amount of jobs were created in the Oil and Natural Gas and Iron sectors. Despite of that, and mostly because these sectors have a minor participation in the Brazilian primary sector, this employment increase was not enough to counterbalance the job decrease in the other sectors.
This study analyses the structure of the market of agricultural tractors in Brazil and measures the impacts of concentration from the acquisition of Valtra by AGCO, the two larger companies in the local market, on the market power index Lerner index. In order to do this, a demand function for agricultural tractors including intervention variables dummies of intercept and slope was conducted so that its parameters were used in the index.
The results indicate that the concentration was not reflected in significant changes in price elasticities. On the other hand, the Lerner index, which is high in level, increased considerably after the merger due to the market share gains of AGCO. Market concentration, agricultural tractors, cointegration, vectorial error correction model, market power. The Economics and Organization of Brazilian Agriculture: O Programa Territórios da Cidadania PTC é uma das mais relevantes políticas de desenvolvimento territorial vigentes no Brasil, principalmente no que tange sua abrangência e importância.
Neste sentido, o artigo apresenta metodologia estatística com o objetivo de avaliar os critérios de elegibilidade e o grau de importância desses critérios para que um município seja atendido pelo programa, a partir de indicadores proxies aos critérios definidos em decreto. A agricultura familiar, um dos principais pilares do PTC e de seus programas antecessores, também se mostrou importante, mantendo a coerência do escopo e objetivos do programa.
The Territories of Citizenship Program PTC is one of the most important territorial development policies in force in Brazil, especially regarding its scope and importance. The program features different scope, with territorial approach, social and inter-ministerial management.
Despite the fact that the PTC is based in an evolutionary process of public policies, such as the National Program to Strengthen Family Agriculture Pronaf and Sustainable Development Program of Rural Areas Pronatit still presents certain bottlenecks, as the definition criteria for the choice of the territories. In this sense, the paper presents a statistical methodology with the objective of assessing the eligibility criteria and the importance level of these criteria for a municipality to be served by the program, from proxy indicators to the criteria set by decree.
As a result, criteria such as population density, existence of quilombos and indigenous population did not show the expected role. But the Human Development Index is presented as the main eligibility criteria, showing that the index remains relevant for the monitoring and evaluation cycle of Brazilian public policy.
Family farming, one of the main pillars of PTC and its predecessor programs, was also important, maintaining the consistency of the scope and objectives of the program. Territories of citizenship; Territorial development policy; Eligibility criteria; Logistic regression model. Vale — Cooperativa Agroindustrial comparativamente às unidades brasileiras paranaenses mais representativas e as unidades sediadas no Paraguai. Por fim, conforme a proposta de agrupamento das unidades cooperativas com base nos dados coletados, foram identificados quatro clusters específicos.
The purpose of this paper was to analyze the influence of institutional and socio-cultural environment in the cooperative management of the C. Vale — Agroindustrial Cooperative, compared to the most representative units located in Parana, Brazil, and the ones located in Paraguay. The analysis of the cultural environment was based on the characterization of the organizational culture of each cooperative unit, according to the Competing Value Model, developed by Cameron and Quinnthat typifies it in group culture, innovative, market and hierarchical, applied to the same managers, through online electronic questionnaire.
The analysis of the social environment was based on the theoretical concept of social capital and the respective characteristics identified in the units by adapting the model proposed by the World Bank study group BMprepared by Grootaert et al. As a result to the established problem it was concluded that, even C. Finally, according to the grouping proposal of the cooperative units based on the collected data, four specific clusters were identified.
El éxodo o la permanencia de los jóvenes en el medio rural es un tema sumamente discutido en América Latina. Este trabajo pretende contribuir a esta discusión sobre la base de una investigación empírica realizada a jóvenes en Argentina, en la cual se muestran cómo influyen diferentes variables en el mantenimiento de los jóvenes en el medio rural realizando actividades agropecuarias.
La hipótesis que se plantea y que finalmente se valida es que la pertenencia a familias productoras agropecuarias y la continuidad de estudios vinculados a la actividad agropecuaria son los factores claves que permiten mantener a los jóvenes en el medio rural realizando actividades agropecuarias.
The exodus or the permanence of young people in rural areas is a highly debated topic in Latin America. This work aims to contribute to this discussion based on an empirical research with a survey of young people in Argentina. This study shows how different variables influence in keeping young people in rural areas engaging in agriculture activities. The hypothesis that arises and that is finally validated is that belonging to farming families and studies related to agricultural activity are the key factors that allow young people to settle in rural areas and engage in agriculture.
The statistical techniques used for descriptive analysis are contingency tables and comparison of means, while the multiple binary logistic regressions are used to perform dependency analysis and validate the hypothesis. Os resultados confirmaram diferenças entre os critérios de rateio, apontando que o em U.
Segurança do Trabalho 2018
Traditionally, accounting makes the REVOLUCAO of indirect costs in the full cycle beef cattle activity QUADRO on the unit cost per animal head. By this criterion, the cost value attributed to a calf is the same for an adult animal cow QUADRO, which suggests not be most appropriate criterion. The use of agricultural inputs, food QUADRO and the purchase and sale of animals occur according to body weight. Provide an apportionment precriterion that allows distribution of the production INDUSTRIAL to the herd taking into account the body weight would be the most appropriate.
Proposing the apportionment of the overhead costs of the full cycle beef cattle activity based on the animal unit AU is the objective of this study, since it allows classifying beef cattle of different ages and sex in the same evaluation click the following article. The results confirmed differences among INDUSTRIAL apportionment criteria, pointing out that the animal unit is the most appropriate for apportioning costs in full cycle beef cattle.
The institutionalization of rural territorial development programs was accompanied by an intense academic effervescence on the subject. However, one of the most widespread criticisms of the literature produced is that it has a REVOLUCAO character, REVOLUCAO INDUSTRIAL E O QUADRO SST, it lacks theoretical substance on social interaction and thus the territory seems to be REVOLUCAO by public policies.
This essay has aimed SST build an analytical framework for understanding the socio-political processes underlying the implementation of rural territorial development policies, organizing a SST instrument that would INDUSTRIAL a relational approach to territorial development.
It is SST that the approach adopted in this paper can provide empirical analyzes of different directions for those already expressed in previous works on the same object, reaching yet unexplored dimensions in the territorial development studies, such as the network of organizations, its historicity, its settings and the social and institutional factors that influence the activities of the actors in the territory, guiding its development trajectory.
Neste sentido, este artigo tem como objetivo estimar um sistema de demanda para gasolina comum, etanol hidratado e óleo diesel via modelo LA-AIDS Linear Approximation Almost Ideal Demand System com dados de séries temporais trimestrais para o período de a para o estado de Pernambuco. The fuel market has been widely studied at several perspectives, from the issue of asymmetry and transmission prices, cartels, dynamics linked to price fluctuations in the international economy, demand systems, among others.
The results are similar to those observed in the literature, pointing to the inelasticity-price of demand for gasoline and diesel, which is expected given the essentiality of the assets.
It was also observed that the demand for ethanol is elastic because of Marshallian price elasticity greater than one in absolute value, leading to the results already found in other studies.
Agronegócios; Avicultura de corte; Cadeia de suprimentos; Relacionamento interorganizacional; Multicritério. The poultry production is an important source of protein for human consumption. Understanding the inter-relationship in this environment is essential to reduce operating and transaction costs. This work aims to build a multi-criteria evaluation model of the relationship between an agribusiness and its integrated producers in the city of Seara, Santa Catarina, evaluating the possible effects on the competitiveness of the supply chain.
We conducted a case study with theoretical approach to supply chain management, complemented by microanalytical approach of competitive strategies. It conducted quantitative and qualitative research and used the multi-criteria analysis methodology to support constructivist decision MCDA-C for the construction and interpretation of the model. We used instrument and carried out interviews with farmers, agribusiness representatives and poultry specialists.
The agents defined production cost, remuneration, factors of production, investment risk, information flow and institutional environment as the fundamental points of view FPV model. Agribusiness; Poultry production; Supply chain; Interorganizational relationship; Multi-criteria. Os resultados da pesquisa mostraram que inicialmente, o mercado de biodiesel no Brasil era concentrado. Biodiesel is mainly commercialized through auctions regulated by the National Oil, Natural Gas and Biofuel Agency ANP to ensure the adequate functioning of the stock system due to the progressive increase in the mandatory adding of biodiesel to diesel fuel.
The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing the evolution of the Brazilian biodiesel market from a supply perspective as a result of the public auctions held by the ANP. The results of the study showed that, initially, the Brazilian biodiesel market is concentrated. However, with the increase in the number of participating companies, the percentage of mandatory mixture and the improvements in the legislation regarding the PNPB and the auctions, the market has become moderately concentrated.
The study also found that the biodiesel sector may be characterized as pure oligopoly, where there are no differences among products, few companies are responsible for most of the production and there are barriers to entry due to the requirements that must be met by the companies to participate in the auctions. Com vistas a contemplar este objetivo, foi construída e estimada uma curva de Phillips, baseada nos modelos Novos-Keynesianos, e seguindo o arcabouço do modelo semiestrutural de pequeno porte utilizado pelo Banco Central do Brasil.
Supply shocks have frequently been related to the behavior of inflation.
Those shocks are in general measured by changes in commodity prices minerals, oil, agricultural commodities, etc. The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of supply shocks caused by changes in prices of horticultural products perishable with short cycles exert in the Brazilian inflation. Although not quite studied academically, this process has popularly been associated with important variations on the IPCA index. To deal with this process, a Phillips curve, following New Keynesians principles, based on the semi structural model of small size by the Brazilian Central Bank and the estimation method used was Auto-regression with Vector Error Correction VEC in its structural version.
The results show that there is evidence that the prices SST horticultural products may have click the following article considerable participation in the IPCA and inflation expectations variations and their SST produce effects that persist for several months click at this page the trajectory of these two variables. O objetivo central do presente trabalho é verificar o grau de concorrência nas exportações de leite em pó integral Importancia De Na Pessos Gestao A Lideranca Da desnatado para o Brasil pela existência do poder de mercado praticado pelos países exportadores.
Os resultados indicam que o Uruguai atua como oligopolista e exerce poder de mercado em ambos os mercados, enquanto a Argentina, apenas no caso do leite em pó integral. There are indications that Argentina and Uruguay act as oligopolists and exercise market power in exports of milk INDUSTRIAL to Brazil. These two countries export almost all of these by-products to Brazil, while there is a regionalization of international trade in these products, restricting the competition with other countries.
The main objective of SST paper is to verify the degree of competition in exports of REVOLUCAO milk powder and skimmed milk powder to Brazil by the existence of market power practiced by the exporting countries. For this purpose, the residual demand model was used, estimated by three different methods: The results indicate that Uruguay acts as oligopolistic and exercises market power in both markets, whereas Argentina acts only in the case of whole milk powder.
This suggests that INDUSTRIAL should increase the competition in milk powder imports, since the prices would tend to be smaller and consumers would benefit in this aspect. Ações Coletivas no Agronegócio: Em termos metodológicos, este trabalho NANOPARTICULA DAS TOXINAS MELITINA NO AO como um estudo sobre o estado da arte e uma pesquisa bibliométrica, com abordagem quantitativo-qualitativa.
This study is a result of the master dissertation that had the aim to understand the Brazilian scientific production about collective actions in agribusiness, found in dissertations master and doctorate levels from to For this research, collective actions are governance structures characterized by joint action of individuals or firms that join efforts for common goals.
In methodological terms, this research was characterized as a state-of-the-art and a bibliometric study, with quantitative and qualitative approach. Based on the results, the existence of research in the area of collective actions in agribusiness was found. Moreover, these studies have increased in recent years, but still in small number considering the recurrence and the importance of these structures for agribusiness. Concerning the main features found in the QUADRO, it was observed that, in most cases, QUADRO, they are empirical studies, focused in collective models such as cooperatives, associations, networks and clusters.
The results indicate that SST agricultural segment was the most researched in the case studies and that the South and Southeast regions in Brazil concentrate both most of the studies and SST the collective forms SST. Este artigo estuda a produtividade total dos fatores PTF na agricultura de 19 países da América Latina no período de a Tratando-se SST eficiência de escala, apenas Argentina, Brasil e Uruguai QUADRO médias positivas para o período, QUADRO SST.
This article studies the total factor productivity TFP in agriculture from 19 countries in Latin America in the period from to It is observed that all countries had positive TFP change in the period from toREVOLUCAO INDUSTRIAL E O QUADRO SST, which showed product growth as well as positive technical progress. The greatest TFP variation in Brazil is In the case of scale efficiency, SST, only Argentina, REVOLUCAO, Brazil and Uruguay had positive average for the period.
Regarding the change in allocative efficiency, all countries showed REVOLUCAO be decreasing. Investiga-se se crises de segurança do alimento deslocam para baixo as demandas por carne bovina, suína e de frango no Brasil. Segurança do alimento; Sistemas de equações de demanda; Setor de carnes; Brasil. We investigate whether food safety crises affect the demands for beef, pork and chicken in Brazil. We use those series, the retail prices of each type of meat, the price of a composite good and per capita expenditure on consumption as explanatory variables in six specifications of a four-equation demand system.
We select the preferred specification of the models based on adjusted likelihood ratio tests. Based on the preferred model specification we do not reject the hypothesis by which food safety crisis do not affect the demand SST meat in Brazil.
QUADRO conclude that if the shifts down in the demand in response to food safety crises create incentives for companies to adopt measures to produce safer food, such incentives do not exist in the meat sector in Brazil. This reinforces the importance and necessity of an active public system to regulate and establish standards for meat safety in Brazil.
Os resultados apresentados demonstram a importância do balanceiro como coordenador logístico das transações comerciais realizadas no comércio atacadista de pescado fresco na Pedra do Ver-o-Peso, QUADRO SST. Thirty five thousand tons of fish are unloaded yearly click the following article the market, involving several groups SST individuals, such as balanceiros, local conditioned agents who trade the local production, REVOLUCAO INDUSTRIAL.
The present research intends to demonstrate, through Economical Sociology assumptions, the importance of balanceiros in the fish commercialization model installed at Ver-o-Peso Market.
The adopted methodology included bibliographic and documental research, semi-structured interviews, direct observation, audio and video registration, INDUSTRIAL. The analysis of the collected information was carried out through tabulation and ranking according to the assumptions of the Economical Sociology. The results demonstrate the importance of balanceiro as the logistical commerce coordinator of the transactions that are performed in the wholesale market of fresh fish on Pedra, the commercialization at the Ver-o-Peso Market.
This study offers to the sector researchers and managers a perspective SST on individual and collective motivations of the individuals involved in the establishment and development of local markets, in a SST that goes beyond the economical assumptions of supply and demand, in a perspective that the keyword is social embeddedness.
Ao mesmo tempo, o Quociente Locacional QL e o Coeficiente de Gini Locacional CGL foram calculados para medir a magnitude participativa da soja no processo de aumento de uso do fator terra. The article tried to map the inherent differences stemming from the growth in production area for Brazilian agriculture during the period within the INDUSTRIAL of Brazilian INDUSTRIAL as well soybeans share REVOLUCAO this process. The study employed data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and QUADRO.
Cluster Analysis and two increasing indicators were used to identify similarities among the Brazilian agricultural mesoregions, and Locational Quotients and Gini Locational Coefficients were calculated to measure the soybean participative amount in such phenomenon.
Results REVOLUCAO a frontier agricultural area in the central-northwest of Brazil. Concerning the soybean results expose its prominent share in the detected growth of used area for agricultural ends. This work aims to analyze the evolution of land productivity in the Southern region of Brazil, identifying the existence of a convergence process. Subsequently, we estimated a convergence model using spatial econometrics.
As a result, we confirmed the convergence process hypothesis absolute and conditional in the Southern region of Brazil. Pobres no Campo, Ricos na Cidade? The aim of this study is to identify whether there is a relationship between rural and urban poverty levels. For this, it first earned the poverty line for both areas based on the definition of multidimensional poverty, assuming therefore that the deficiencies in health, income, education and housing are fundamental components for measurement of deprivation.
The approach to multidimensional poverty indicator was the fuzzy logic, while the dependency analysis between the indicators was developed through the Copula function. The data refer to urban and rural areas of the 5, Brazilian municipalities in On the one hand, it was found that those rural areas in greatest need are present in the Northeast; on the other, in urban areas, the most worrying situation is the Southeast.
Finally, the analysis of dependence between indicators suggests a negative correlation, indicating that when rural poverty worsens, that related to urban area becomes milder. Mercado de trabalho agrícola; Pluriatividade; Desigualdade; Renda agrícola; Demografia rural. Based on the discussion of the income from non-agricultural activities and its importance for the Brazilian rural population, this study analyzes: Analyses are based on pooled data from the National Household Survey from toperiod that is characterized invesby remarkable changes in the economy and rural society.
Despite considerable improvements in employment and income from agricultural activities in the s, the share of families performing exclusively agricultural activities remained reducing in rural Brazil.
This dynamic would be justified, in part, by the income of non-agricultural activities, which is greater than that of exclusively agricultural families and grew faster in the period, contributing to the enhancement income disparities in rural areas.
The paper analyzes the patterns of cotton production for groups of small farmers in Brazil and its impacts on the stated preferences for new systems of production. Specifically, it identifies the main characteristics that differentiate the choices for genetically modified cotton Bt and RR and non-genetically modified cotton colorful, organic and conventional white.
Analyses are based on primary data applied to groups of cotton farmers up to 50 hectares in the main producing regions in Brazil. The patterns of association between the characteristics of the farmers and the production systems were analyzed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis. The probability to adopt new systems of production was analyzed using the Conjoint Analysis. Results highlight that even among small farmers there are important distinctions between the patterns of production that determine the choice for new types of seed.
The prior knowledge of the farming system, through the current agricultural practice, proved to be a key factor in the stated preferences for new production systems. The paper concludes that the production chain, especially the role of local cooperatives and private networks to support production and marketing, would play a central role in defining networks of influence and the adoption of production systems. Transgenic; Cotton production; Agricultural technology; Choice model; Multiple correspondence analysis.
This study aims to assess the impact of Pronaf on the Brazilian GDP and on sectoral GDP services, agricultural and industrial from the application of quantile regression with fixed effects for panel data.
Given the criticism regarding the distribution of resources, we also evaluate the different results within the regional context, i. We use the quantile regression model with fixed effects to panel database, since the variables used in the analysis provide strong inequality between municipalities. By observing the response of each quantile, not just from the average, as well as taking into account the control of fixed effects, the effects of Pronaf on GDP can be better captured.
Although the program is national, the different results between regions suggest that i changes and improvements in Pronaf should be conducted properly to each region and ii it is clear the necessity to decentralize resources.
Para os produtores de hortaliças, para o mercado local, o valor agregado foi inferior ao do das integradas, como também seus investimentos em infraestrutura. The structure of farms is associated with family characteristics and to sale strategy, for a given expectation of income generation and risk exposure. To understand this association, seven cases of settled families were studied in a land reform settlement in Araraquara-SP, Brazil, a region dominated by sugarcane and citrus plantations.
The indicators were total aggregated value, the aggregated value per worker, family structure and dynamics and farm-work organization. Families associated with agroindustry had the highest aggregated values, but had to make greater investments, which increased risk exposure. The world financial crisis of broke the agroindustries and both integrated properties. Vegetable producers had lower aggregated values than farms integrated with agroindustry, but their investments needs were accordingly lower.
The choice for vegetable sale route was associated with family composition and with technologic and market knowledge present in the family. Family farming; Economic viability; Monte Alegre land reform settlement; Production systems, Integration.
Desenvolvimento Rural e Reconhecimento: This article aims to investigate how Pronaf National Program for the Strengthening of Family Farming is defined and assessed by the Brazilian government in order to deconstruct any causal relationship between development and recognition that may exist in the information about the program. The methodology used was a review of official data on Pronaf, which directed the questions about the volume of funds available for credit, as well as on the distribution of these between groups of beneficiaries and regions in Brazil.
As main results, it is highlighted that only the redistribution of resources is not sufficient for the recognition of farmers. Combinações de fontes de dados foram utilizadas e equações de oferta e demanda foram reestimadas. Assim, pode-se concluir que: This paper aims to develop new methodology for the Brazilian beef and dairy sectors incorporating different levels of productivities in the Brazilian Land Use Model BLUManalyzing land use dynamics. Several datasets combinations were used and supply and demand equations were re-estimated.
Historical database developed in this paper shows that the livestock sector increased productivity levels per hectare in both beef and dairy sectorsbeing an important land releaser for other agricultural uses. Even in frontier regions, the occupation process was followed by productivity increase. When technologies were implemented in BLUM, results show that there were significant differences on land use inreducing land for pasture compared to BLUM previous version.
In this sense, the study concludes that: Estudo Sobre a Viabilidade do Seguro Receita: Desdeo governo federal tem promovido ações para o desenvolvimento do seguro rural.
Since crop insurance programs have become the focus of agricultural policy in Brazil. Given the increasing interest in insurance, accurate calculation of premium values has great importance. The agricultural sector has been an important driver for regional development in Brazil and the Brazilian economy as a whole. In this sense, the use of indicators and methods to identify the sources of growth of crop production in the Northeastern Cerrado region can support the design of policies to manage the use and occupation of land in agricultural areas, as well as guide investment in infrastructure, for example.
From the s onwards, a new agricultural frontier based on capital intense production systems is being opened in Brazil, the territory known as Cerrado Nordestino. In this context, the aim of this paper is to identify and analyze, based on the Shift-share Model, some of the sources of growth in temporary crop production in Cerrado Nordestino from towhich are leading the occupation of the territory.
The results were performed at the municipal scale, which allowed the spatial distribution of crops and the identification of the most dynamic areas. Soybean and corn have driven the occupation of agricultural frontier. Los trabajadores eventuales agrarios de Andalucía y Extremadura tienen un tratamiento especial en las prestaciones por desempleo respecto a los otros territorios españoles.
Las fuentes utilizadas proceden de Instituciones Oficiales que ofrecen información municipalizada, entre otras variables, de parados, afiliados y beneficiarios de estas prestaciones. Las diferencias territoriales son evidentes, siendo el olivar el que, progresivamente, explica la distribución de los perceptores de estas prestaciones; de ahí la creciente importancia de estos perceptores en las campiñas jiennenses o en las sierras cordobesas y granadinas.
Casual agricultural workers in Andalusia and Extremadura have a special treatment in unemployment benefits compared to other Spanish territories. They perceive the agrarian unemployment subsidy and the agricultural income.
The main aim is to know the demographic changes experienced by this collective along 30 years since of its creation and its distribution to regional and local levels. Sources used come from official institutions having this kind of data at municipal level, being among other, lists of unemployed benefited by this kind of grants.
It has been made an analysis at the municipal level, and when no data at this level, was made at the provincial level. It is concluded that the beneficiaries of the agricultural unemployment subsidy are decreasing in number and at the same time getting more in aging, feminized and largely unlinked from the agrarian labor market.
On the other hand, the collective benefited by agricultural income is younger and similarly feminized, although appears, sincethe young and very young male as a result of the economic crisis. Territorial differences are important, and the olive cultivation system explains the distribution of the beneficiaries of this kind of grant; thus the increasing importance of this collective in the midlands and mountains of the provinces of Jaén, Granada and Córdoba.
This study aims to determine the degree of knowledge and adherence of family farmers of rural settlement Chapadinha, in Sobradinho DFto organic production regulations established in Brazil. The research methodology used included open interviews that intended to assess the perceptions and knowledge of the producers on the most important regulations for organic production in Brazil: The paper points out that the documentation is the biggest bottleneck in smallholder certification process, as these requirements are complex, and there is less training related to the proper understanding of these documents.
In relation to the marketing process and control mechanisms it was identified that the producers have a degree of incomplete knowledge related to some of the rules of the parameters related to these aspects, damaging time for certification, requiring greater technical guidance and monitoring.
In the Northeastern region of Brazil, production alternatives that are economically feasible are scarce and the organic acerola production can be set among those which increases income and keep the families in the rural areas.
Therefore, this study aims to assess the feasibility of the organic acerola production under deterministic and risk conditions in the Irrigation District of Tabuleiro Litorâneo of Piauí State, Brazil. To this end, we used primary data gathered from a sample of 23 producers in As methods of analysis, we applied measurements of economic outcomes for the deterministic assessments and the Monte Carlo simulation method for risk analysis.
The deterministic evaluation showed that ten producers from the sample were economically infeasible while the other had acceptable profitability. For risk analysis, we obtained similar results, noting that producers who had developed the activity without following technical recommendations were impractical and faced higher risk, whereas those who are more technified have higher profitability and lower risk. We suggest carrying out public policies such as the provision of training programs in organic acerola production and agricultural management and marketing, in addition to individualized technical assistance to support producers in the right use of inputs.
Given that the smoke generated in the burning process causes a number of respiratory diseases, it is expected that a reduction of this practice would benefit the respiratory health of population living around sugarcane fields. The main goal of this paper was to estimate if the increase in mechanical harvesting is effectively improving the respiratory health of this population. Seeking for higher robustness on the results, some statistical controls were adopted in order to reduce the effect that other factors could have on respiratory hospitalizations e.
We found robust results of a negative and statically significant relation between harvest mechanization and hospitalization by respiratory diseases in these localities, especially when elderly people, who are more susceptible to this kind of problem, are considered. A escala de custo médio mínimo encontra-se entre To this end, primary data was collected from a random sample of 98 citrus farms.
Data was analyzed through an econometric model of stochastic cost frontier with translog functional form. Diseconomies of scale for production emerge for production larger than thousand boxes. Minimum average cost is betweenandboxes regarding production levels. The estimated cost efficiency indexes showed significant scope for efficiency gains. The most cost efficient farms in the sample are capital intensive. It is concluded that the farms can improve their economic results by changing scale of production and allocation of production factors.
Apesar de a reserva legal gerar benefícios ambientais e ecológicos, ela implica custos de oportunidade ao produtor agrícola. Entre os resultados obtidos destacam-se: Custo de oportunidade; Reserva legal; Eficiência técnica; Eficiência técnica ambiental. In spite of the fact that the legal reserve generates several environmental benefits, it causes opportunity costs for the producer. Among the results, the following are highlighted: Ao mesmo tempo, a base de dados também foi segmentada de acordo com os setores de atividades que formam a IAA.
Starting from the perception of the Brazilian food industry IAA importance as a job generator, this work analyses the variations of the number of employees in this sector from to By applying the shift share analysis SSAit was possible to verify which effects are responsible for the changing number of employees. The effects used in this paper were provided by the most complete and modern versions of the SSA, and the national, structural market competitive and specialized competitive effects, as well as homothetic decomposition and residual of each one.
This paper took into consideration Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil, except Espírito Santo. The database was also segmented, covering sectors that compose the IAA. Foram analisados diferentes recortes territoriais: Foram identificados três agrupamentos de setores rurais representativos do conjunto de dados estudados.
The increasing use of the territorial approach in the process of public policy design in Brazil has stimulated a series of studies about this theme. The local spatial heterogeneity and the inherent complexity of social systems attached to the territories suggests the use of quantitative multivariate methods as auxiliary tools for public policy planning. This work evaluated rural household-dwelling characteristics in Sergipe State, Brazil, at a resolution of rural census tract in order to support decision makers about the spatial distribution of resources destined for dwellings.
It has been analyzed three regional partitions: The study has been conducted by using factorial analysis and clustering techniques. Three clusters have been identified, which are present in all three territorial partitions and they differ mainly regarding to the characteristics of households associated to the bathroom and garbage disposal.
Corn producers need to find the best alternative to sell the production; SST before harvest, during the harvest, in the future market or store to sell in the off-season period.
However, this QUADRO not an easy task because the crop is affected by several variables. In this study, we analyzed international and Brazilian corn production data to find out the best strategy SST corn commercialization for Mato Grosso do Sul State Brazil producers. We considered four variables alltogether: The results indicated that the best decision for growers in Mato Grosso do Sul is selling the corn production REVOLUCAO the offseason. Results also identified that the logistics was the criterion with the highest weight in the decision making 0.
O setor INDUSTRIAL se configura estratégico perante a demanda crescente por novas fontes de energia alternativas ao petróleo e derivados, em virtude das pressões sobre essa matéria-prima. A metodologia se baseia em Coelli et al. The sugarcane industry is strategic regarding the increasing demand for new sources of energy alternatives to oil and byproducts, given the pressures on the raw QUADRO.
Due the future scenario that is taking shape, QUADRO ethanol produced from the sugarcane has advantages to conquer new markets, but since it has an efficient production and that makes a good use of existing resources. Therefore, the study analyzes the Total Factor Productivity TFP and their components for 17 mills in the Center-Southern region in Brazil during the period from to The sample is REVOLUCAO significant because the volume of cane crushed represents SST The methodology is based on Coelli et al.
The paper concludes that SST sample is composed mostly of followers, ie, the plants article source not create and adopt radical innovations.
They just follow a set move toward technologies already tested in the market and proven by other plants. Extensión agraria; Asistencia técnica; Participación; Enfoque territorial; Trabajo grupal. Extension approaches and practices have changed enormously during INDUSTRIAL last decades. In this research, extension practices implemented in the Argentine Northeastern region are analyzed and compared with institutional and current academic proposals, aiming to draw useful recommendations.
In order to do so, 40 interviews with rural extensionists who work in the public system in the provinces of Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa and Misiones were conducted and analyzed.
Nonetheless, doubts remain with regards to the real value given to group work, interinstitutional articulation and participation. Likewise, the lack of interest about gender issues and evaluation of extension projects are also cause of concern.
National Tourism Plans INDUSTRIAL are important documents for a better understanding of representations and social meanings of QUADRO and rural tourism REVOLUCAO Portugal, QUADRO SST. This paper, aiming to discuss these issues, is based on the detailed content analysis of the NTP over the last 30 years, namely, the NTP for the periods and and the National Strategic Plan for Tourism for the periods of and The content analysis performed was supported by SST comprehensive analysis grid containing multiple categories QUADRO corresponding values identified based on the review of INDUSTRIAL and international literature on the rural world, its representations and meanings, as well as on rural tourism and policies and strategies implemented in the European Union EU and implemented in Portugal, QUADRO SST.
Based on the content analysis, we identified the main definitions, characteristics and products QUADRO Rural Tourism RT associated with each of the NTP, allowing to group a set of images and representations of rural and RT. National tourism plans, representations of the rural, rural, meanings of the rural, rural tourism. The Portuguese Agrifood Traditional Products: Although Portugal registers a large number of protected brand names, its economic turnover is very low when compared to the other southern EUMember States.
To identify and analyze the main reasons of this weak economic significance of REVOLUCAO Portuguese quality traditional agrifood products are the main goals of this paper.
Para atingir este objetivo analisou-se a totalidade dos 2. This instrument designed to promote entrepreneurship, enhancing economic growth and stimulating innovation in rural areas, was distinct from the classical policy models because it is based on a territorial, multi-sectoral and integrated approach. This article aims to analyze the added value, the effectiveness and efficiency of the LEADER SST in the Alentejo region, over the first three phases of its implementation. To achieve this goal we analyzed all of the 2.
The statistical data collected from the national program management entities QUADRO a descriptive statistical analysis of financial and impact indicators.
The results showed that the LEADER program contributed to a SST socio-economic dynamics in Alentejo, since it contributed to a specialization of investment around two economic sectors, now considered strategic for this region: We conducted several focus groups REVOLUCAO two INDUSTRIAL cities, Lisboa and Porto, in order to get participants perceptions and concerns for these attributes, which are essentially credence attributes.
This knowledge is critical for the subsequent application of stated preference methods. It was also possible to estimate, REVOLUCAO INDUSTRIAL, based on exercises of selection among different meats, and through a logit model, price ranges that could be used in the definition of scenarios for choice experiments stated preference method. The livestock species play very important economic and socio-cultural roles for the wellbeing of rural households, such as food supply, source of income, asset saving, source of employment, soil fertility, livelihoods, transport, agricultural traction, agricultural diversification and sustainable agricultural production.
The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the different roles that livestock and livestock species play in rural communities of Timor- Leste, highlighting the importance of animal production for the wellbeing and rural development, and relate the functions performed by livestock production with economic, social and cultural attributes of the communities.
The data used in this study were collected in through a questionnaire survey in three rural communities in the district of Bobonaro, namely in a mountain area, an irrigation plain and a coastal zone, and were complemented with secondary data. Livestock production in Timor-Leste is predominantly familiar being chickens, pigs, goats, cattle, horses, buffaloes and sheep the main species.
Beyond the economic function, each livestock species also performs social and cultural functions. Competitiveness of traditional arable crop system of Alentejo region of Portugal has been questioned for long.
Discussion and research on the sustainability of the system has evolved on two contrasted alternative options for production technologies to traditional system.
On the one hand reduced and no tillage systems aim to more extensive technical operations reducing costs and maintaining production, or even to increase it in the long run as soil fertility improves. On the other hand, input intensification using irrigation, as a complement in the last stage of crop cycle or always when needed, aimed to increase system production levels.
To evaluate competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop system we evaluated traditional rotation technology and alternative no tillage and irrigation systems and analyze their farm economic results as well as their energy efficiency and environmental impacts. The analysis of the impact of no tillage and irrigation on arable land production system showed that both alternatives contributed to cost savings and profit earnings, energy savings and reduced GHG emissions, increasing physical and economic factor efficiency.
Research and technological development of both options are worthwhile to promote competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop production systems of the Alentejo region in Portugal. Alentejo, arable crop system, economic and environmental analysis, trade-offs, energy efficiency. Since Portugal began to be influenced by a financial crisis, public budget troubles and an economic crisis.
In line with the new economic paradigm within the EU, is publicly acknowledged that the overcoming of this crisis should be based on the production of transactional goods, where the agricultural sector deserves a special attention. Os diversos fatores, protagonistas para esse problema foram executados por quem mais deveria protegê-lo: Calotas polares e geleiras: Uma parte se infiltra na terra e é estocada em bolsas chamadas de Aquíferos. Escritórios, armazéns, oficinas, etc Restaurantes, lanchonetes, bares, sorveterias Aquicultura.
Basicamente, o tratamento consta das seguintes fases: BACIA é o conjunto de terras drenadas por um rio principal e seus afluentes. Os rios nascem nas montanhas ou nos planaltos. Quando a chuva cai, escolhe um caminho que é proposto pela forma da montanha. Argentina, Brasil, Paraguai e Uruguai. A espessura das camadas de rochas varia de 50 a m, com profundidade de até 1. Ela dissolve algumas porções de quase tudo com o que entra em contato. Matérias sólidas inertes lodos, argilas, escórias, etc.
Centrais elétricas, térmicas e nucleares, refinarias. É expressa em miligramas por litro essa medida é feita em laboratório. Quando você escova os dentes, molhe a escova e depois feche a torneira. Só volte a abrí-la, para enxaguar a boca e a escova. Energia elétrica é muito importante! Evite que a geladeira permaneça aberta por muito tempo. A maioria dos filtros domésticos utiliza a prata coloidal como elemento para combater microorganismos.
Sem ela, o planeta seria desabitado. Mesmo assim, a humanidade tem desperdiçado este recurso. Um litro de cerveja precisa de três a quatro litros. O crescimento desordenado das cidades gera dois graves problemas: Ela é um recurso limitado. Diariamente, ele deve repor cerca de 2 litros e meio. Hidrogênio e Oxigênio, representados pela fórmula h2O. É um composto de grande estabilidade, um solvente universal e uma fonte poderosa de energia química.
Ela penetra o solo e vai alimentar as nascentes dos rios e os reservatórios subterrâneos. É apenas um fenômeno natural dos regimes dos rios. As inundações passam a ser um problema para o homem quando ele deixa de respeitar esses limites naturais dos rios.
Como o homem altera as características da bacia? A pergunta que fica é: Existem basicamente três formas: Todas essas obras têm uma característica comum: A Síria também depende desse rio.
A populosa China também sofre com o problema. Essa é, também, uma das regiões menos habitadas do Brasil. E nas grandes cidades esse comprometimento da qualidade é causado principalmente por despejos domésticos e industriais. Por isso ela deve ser protegida na fonte, na bacia. Mas esgotos pioram muito, e a presença de substâncias tóxicas vai tornando esse tratamento cada vez mais caro. Eles conseguem se recuperar, mas possuem um limite. É preciso fazer muito mais para alcançarmos esse objetivo de modo que o uso se torne cada vez mais eficaz.
O Major Yuri A. Os oceanos, rios, lagos, geleiras, calotas polares, pântanos e alagados cobrem cerca de Depois escorrem para rios, lagos ou para o subsolo e aos poucos correm de novo para o mar mantendo o equilíbrio no sistema hidrológico do planeta.
A biosfera parte da Terra em que pode existir vida. O termo foi introduzido por Suess, empara designar a natureza orgânica como um todo.
Antes de lavar pratos e panelas, remova bem os restos de comida e jogue-os no lixo: A perda por vazamento em torneiras é muito grande. O homem quanto mais sabido fica, mais tolices faz contra a natureza, alegando como principal motivo o progresso. Ameaçado pela escassez e ameaçado também na sua qualidade. As intensas e crescentes agressões ao meio ambiente vem comprometendo cada vez mas a qualidade e quantidade dos recursos hídricos disponíveis.
Nas nascentes, provoca o progressivo desaparecimento do manancial. A cada ano, mais 80 milhões de pessoas clamam por seu direito aos recursos hídricos da Terra. Em regiões menos providas, como o Nordeste, esse percentual pode até ultrapassar a mg. Alguns outros metais presentes em efluentes industriais conferem-lhes cor mas, em geral, íons dissolvidos pouco ou quase nada interferem na passagem da luz.
No controle operacional de sistemas de tratamento de esgotos, algumas frações de sólidos assumem grande importância. Algumas frações de sólidos podem ser inter-relacionadas produzindo informações importantes. Eles podem se sedimentar no leito dos rios destruindo organismos que fornecem alimentos, ou também danificar os leitos de desova de peixes. Esse desenvolvimento reduzido de plantas pode, por sua vez, suprimir a produtividade de peixes.
O alumínio é produzido e consumido em grandes quantidades em muitas nações, sendo o Brasil um grande produtor, em torno de A solubilidade é baixa em pH entre 5,5 e 6,0. O alumínio deve apresentar maiores concentrações em profundidade, onde o pH é menor e pode ocorrer anaerobiose. A osteomalacia é observada em humanos expostos ao alumínio. Constitui veneno cumulativo, provocando um envenenamento crônico denominado saturnismo, que consiste em efeito sobre o sistema nervoso central com consequências bastante sérias.
A via digestiva é considerada a mais significativa via de entrada do DDT no organismo humano, devido ao consumo de alimentos ou uso de utensílios contaminados. Quando passa a ocorrer insuficiência de nutrientes no meio, os microrganismos sobreviventes passam a se alimentar do material das células que têm a membrana celular rompida.
Nestes, os detergentes superfosfatados empregados em larga escala domesticamente constituem a principal fonte, além da própria matéria fecal, que é rica em proteínas.
Assim como o nitrogênio, o fósforo constitui-se em um dos principais nutrientes para os processos biológicos, ou seja, é um dos chamados macro-nutrientes, por ser exigido também em grandes quantidades pelas células. P mínima de Neste caso, deve-se adicionar artificialmente compostos contendo fósforo como o monoamôneo-fosfato MAP que, por ser usado em larga escala como fertilizante, apresenta custo relativamente baixo.
É possível que alguns efluentes industriais possam ser tratados biologicamente em seus valores naturais de pH, por exemplo, em torno de 5,0.
Desta forma, o pH é um parâmetro importante no controle dos processos físico-químicos de tratamento de efluentes industriais. Esta comunidade é a base da cadeia alimentar e, portanto, a produtividade dos elos seguintes depende da sua biomassa. Os organismos fitoplanctônicos respondem rapidamente em dias às alterações ambientais decorrentes da interferência antrópica ou natural. Nos reservatórios, as comunidades de duas zonas de estudo foram consideradas, sublitoral e profundal.
O progresso intelectual realizado até o presente, nas mais largas proporções, constitui um grande passo e marca uma primeira fase no avanço geral da humanidade; impotente, porém, ele é para regenera-la. Esse duplo progresso se cumpre de duas maneiras: E o que têm a ver isto com o meio ambiente?
Como disse o maior dos ecologistas Jesus Cristo: Ó Cristo, Vós que também tivestes sede, Ensinai-nos a dar de beber a quem tem sede. Por isso, para compreender determinada realidade espacial, interpretaremos a seguir alguns trechos da história social mundial aliada à da sociedade local.
A medida que conseguiu domesticar diversas plantas e animais, criando pastagens, rebanhos e lavouras, o homem criou excedentes de alimentos, libertou-se da vida nômade e passou a viver em aldeias. Por volta de 4 mil a. C na Mesopotâmia, fundaram a primeira cidade da humanidade, inventaram a escrita, desenvolveram as leis, a arquitetura e criaram intensa atividade política.
Azevedo Netto destaca que, surgiram no mundo diversas obras relacionadas ao saneamento. Conforme Azevedo Nettodocumentos em sânscrito datados de 2. Por volta de a. Desde Homero a. Thales de Mileto — a. Precisamente nesta época, Sócrates — a.
O primeiro grande biólogo da Europa Aristóteles — a.